Core tomatoCultivation of tomato 6 1 Introduction 1.1 A brief description of tomato Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. World tomato production in 2001 was about 105 million tons of fresh fruit from an estimated 3.9 million ha. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is eco-Peeling and coring tomatoes is a very important step for many culinary items esp canning. Here is a quick way to peel and core tomatoes the easy way. Ask Question Step 1: Prepare the Hot Water Bath and Ice Water Bath Get a pot of boiling water together. This will be used to loosen the peels. Then prepare an ice water bath. Ask QuestionPrune your tomato plant by snipping any suckers that may pop up and limit it to one single stem (the main stem). Also, only leave 2 to 3 flowers per cluster and snip the rest. Doing this allows the plant to focus all of its energy on 2 to 3 fruits instead of five or six. As a result, the tomatoes can grow larger.Core tomatoes, then freeze in freezer bags (don't bother peeling them). To use frozen tomatoes, plunge into simmering sauces or soups; burst skins will float to the surface making them easy to remove. Submit a Recipe Correction.Heat Butter Flavored Olive Oil by Star in a large shallow pan. Mix the oregano, salt and pepper into the bread crumbs or panko and set on a plate. Download this Slice Of Tasty Chi Small Bowl: 140 CAL. Vegetable broth, cauliflower purée, cheddar cheese, parmesan cheese, basil leaves, tomatoes, olive oil, garlic. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. ** Nutritional values and caloric count are based on a regular size bowl.Pink Girl Hybrid Tomato. #00556. Questions? Call 1-800-345-5977. (VFASt) 76 Days. Heavy producer of pink fruits, averaging 6 to 8 oz. Fruits are extremely crack-resistant and low in acid. Rich flavor and superior quality in a disease resistant variety. A season-long high yielder.The largest tomatoes (beefsteak tomatoes) can weigh a pound (16 ounces or 455 grams) or more. Most medium tomatoes (the ones you find at a grocery store) weigh anywhere from 4 to 8 ounces. Of course, the weight of a tomato depends on the variety: cherry, grape, plum, roma, or beefsteak. Tomato weight can vary from half an ounce (14 grams) for ...Core the tomatoes. Holding your knife at an angle, cut a circle around the stem end of the tomato, or where it used to be attached to the plant. Remove the wedge of tomato core. Flash freeze tomatoes. Arrange the tomatoes in a single layer on a rimmed baking sheet, and freeze until solid. Transfer to freezer containers.2:59. 0:00 / 2:59. •. Live. •. In this video, you can learn how to peel, seed, core and chop a tomato like a pro! Share on Facebook Share on Pinterest Share by Email More sharing options.5. Slip off skins; trim away any green areas; cut out core. Leave tomatoes whole or cut into halves or quarters. For tomatoes packed in water, place tomatoes in a large saucepot, adding just enough water to cover. Boil gently 5 minutes. Remove canning jar from hot water with a jar lifter; set jar on towel.We're committed to helping you grow the best tomatoes ever! We start by choosing the best varieties, using only organic fertilizer, shipping at just the right time for your area, guaranteeing every tomato plant arrives alive and thriving, and provide experts to answer any question you may have throughout the growing season.Tomatoes grow down from the stem, creating a series of cavities around a soft core. This core holds the cavities together, which keeps the seeds and juicy pulp in place. A tomato cut into slices parallel to the core will burst open; large sections of pulp will fall out of the tomato slices once cut.Cut around the stem of a peeled tomato, angling your knife in at a 45 degree angle as you cut. Then, use your fingers to pop out the stem and the core. Now, turn the tomato on its side, and cut it in half. Scoop out the seeds and any remaining core (the white part). You can use a spoon to do this, but I find it's faster to use my fingers.Making tomato purée from ripe tomatoes takes a little bit more time, but it's totally worth it in the middle of summer when tomatoes are at their peak! Here's how. Bring a large pot of water to boil. Fill a large bowl with cold water and ice. Using a sharp knife, core each tomato. Plunge the tomatoes into the boiling water for 20-30 seconds.anime beach pornligne roset anna bedconnected credit unionmovie theaters in la quintapytesseract image to string languageerotic massage pornvhdl or operator example Gene transcription data suggested that a number of tomato signaling components operate in the fruit, which seem to support a role for ABA perception and signal transduction in fruit to promote development and ripening. We also demonstrated that chemical approaches could stimulate or inhibit the activity of the tomato ABA signaling core components.In this study, we attempted to identify plant growth-promoting endophytes within the bacterial groups identified as part of the core tomato root microbiome. In total, 49 bacterial endophytic strains, identified as members of the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were picked and isolated from tomato roots on selected media.Aug 01, 2018 · Aim for about five to six cups per week of the foods in this group, which also includes carrots, squash, and sweet potatoes. When good fresh tomatoes aren't available, canned tomatoes are a good substitute, especially in soups, stews, and pasta sauces. Eating tomatoes and tomato products may help lower cholesterol and improve blood vessel ... To core a tomato, cut off the top third of the tomato, leaving about 1/4 inch of the bottom intact. Cut around the circumference of the tomato, being careful not to cut into the flesh. Remove the stem and seeds by cutting down along the side of the tomato. How does a tomato corer work? A tomato corer is a tool used to remove the center of a tomato.The tomato skin is a different texture from the tomato flesh, and will remain so in sauces and purées—you'll get tiny chunks of skin instead of an uniformly smooth mixture. Moreover, the tomato ...Some tomato problems we can combat and some are up to fate. One such oddity is when red tomatoes are green inside. ... The end result may be a tough, green to greenish-white inner core with pale fruit walls and green seeds and cavities. While Mother Nature's whims are out of your control, you can do some things to thwart her caprices.Wash tomatoes, drain. Core tomatoes; cut into halves or quarters. Combine salt, vinegar and water in a large sauce pot. Bring to a boil. Pack tomato chunks into hot jars, leaving 1/4 inch headspace. Add 1 clove garlic, 1 head of dill (or 2 teaspoons dill seeds) and 1 bay leaf to each jar. Ladle hot liquid over tomatoes, leaving 1/4 inch head space.How To Read Tomato Disease Resistance Codes? When purchasing tomato cultivars, you'll find certain abbreviations listed on the seeds packet or seedling label. These letters mark the disease resistance codes for that specific tomato variety. If you can read those codes right, you'll know which tomato disease is the variety resistant to.Abstract. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The best known method of control of TSWV is through the use of resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, only a few peanut genotypes with moderate levels of resistance are known. The objectives of this study were to identify additional sources of resistance to TSWV and to ...Core. Remove the core of the tomato using a paring knife. Score. Mark an 'X' on the opposite side of the tomato from the core, slicing only the skin. Blanch. Immerse the cored, scored tomatoes in boiling water for 1 - 3 minutes, until the peel starts to pull away from the tomato.Johnny's Exclusive. San Marzano II. Organic Tomato Seed. High-quality strain of this classic heirloom paste tomato. High-quality strain of this classic heirloom paste tomato. 78 Days. Select Packet $5.40 250 Seeds $7.55 1,000 Seeds $14.30 5,000 Seeds $56.20 Packet / $5.40. Quantity. Subtract From Quantity.free stream boxing livegrand slam moviesbuckeye state credit unionsugar free lemon caketrocas baratas de venta en el paso texassuna rintarou birthdayvintage tyco ho slot car partssupernatural impala wallpaper Feb 21, 2022 · Coring and Seeding Tomatoes Download Article 1. Place your washed tomato on a cutting board. Place it stem side up. 2. Slice the tomato in half vertically from the top. Hold the tomato together with your other hand and slice it into... 3. Let the 4 tomato slices open onto the cutting board. 4. Use ... Mar 24, 2022 · A lot of the substitutions below cover how to take a tomato-y ingredient and add other things to conjure a sauce. “You need some sort of fat. Extra virgin olive oil is always a good go-to ... The indeterminate tomatoes come with a small 0.5oz size. The tomatoes are suitable for salads. Cherry Punch. The 1” indeterminate tomatoes are known for their high nutritional value. The small tomatoes are high in Vitamin C. Chiquita. With a fruit size of 0.5oz, the determinate cherry tomatoes can be used in salads. The fruits have a deep ... Cook until crisp tender, about 3 to 5 minutes according to the size of the beans. Do not overcook. Drain and let cool. Cut away the core of each tomato, and cut it into wedges. In a salad bowl, add mustard, vinegar, shallots, garlic, oil, salt and pepper and blend with a wire whisk. Add beans and tomatoes, toss well. Sprinkle with basil.In this study, we attempted to identify plant growth-promoting endophytes within the bacterial groups identified as part of the core tomato root microbiome. In total, 49 bacterial endophytic strains, identified as members of the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were picked and isolated from tomato roots on selected media.I like heirloom tomatoes but BB is the only hybrid I use because its fruit is so pretty though average in taste IMO. Mortgage Lifter is still not showing any fruit whereas BB is loaded. I use OMRI organic tomato food and spray apple juice on the tomato blossoms to set and keep them from falling off.When they're solid, I take the tomatoes out of the pans and slip them into plastic bags, so they're ready to add to soups, chili and other recipes. —Barbara Kynock, Centreville, Nova Scotia. To quickly use a huge supply of garden tomatoes, I wash and core them, then puree in the blender with lemon juice, onion and celery to taste.Aug 03, 2021 · 1. Wash the tomatoes. 2. Remove core and any bad spots. 3. Cut your tomatoes into small chunks. The smaller the chunks, the faster the process. 4. In a large non-reactive stockpot over medium heat place enough chunks of tomatoes to fill the pot 1/6th full. Ridged surface: Perfect for training plants, ridged surface are great for climbers to grip at they. Works for young plant supporting, eggplant stakes, tomato stakes, pole bean stakes, tree stakes and great for building trellises or teepees for natural climbing plant support.Oct 22, 2020 · Hybrids That Are Blight Resistant. Thankfully, Cornell University has bred newer varieties of tomatoes that are resistant to the different stages of blight. Here’s a list of the most blight resistant tomato varieties to plant in your garden: Iron Lady. Plum Perfect. Core gardening is a method used to retain water for your plants, making them last longer without watering, especially in arid areas, or if you are away from home often. Here we explain how to create a core garden, which is a super-easy process with many benefits.Tomato Core-It. Remove tomato cores with ease. Features and Benefits. Rapidly removes tomato cores; Ergonomically designed for anyone to safely and easily useAug 03, 2021 · 1. Wash the tomatoes. 2. Remove core and any bad spots. 3. Cut your tomatoes into small chunks. The smaller the chunks, the faster the process. 4. In a large non-reactive stockpot over medium heat place enough chunks of tomatoes to fill the pot 1/6th full. The indeterminate tomatoes come with a small 0.5oz size. The tomatoes are suitable for salads. Cherry Punch. The 1" indeterminate tomatoes are known for their high nutritional value. The small tomatoes are high in Vitamin C. Chiquita. With a fruit size of 0.5oz, the determinate cherry tomatoes can be used in salads. The fruits have a deep ...blac k specks, whole seeds, tomato peel, core material or other similar substances. The specific requireme nts for defects are included in Table I of Section 52.2375. This factor is evaluated by observing a layer of 100 g (3.5 oz ) of product which is spread over a smooth white surface area of at leastTomato based stews are so common in West Africa! In fact, they are the kind of stew I knew while growing up. West African tomato stews are either made with chicken, beef or fish. Growing up in Cameroon, Fish Stew was the cheaper version of stew.Raise heat to moderate and cook five minutes more. Add mustard seeds and allow them to splutter. Slice the top off the tomatoes and using a tablespoon empty the tomatoes. Baste ea May 25, 2021 · The paste tomato is a versatile, dense fruit that works just as well in salads as it does for canning as paste or sauce. Also known as plum tomatoes, these red fruits take a while to develop. The ... buscar video pornopottery classes houston heightssaisd frontline landing pagerat fink merchandiseairpods app for androidfs22 60 ft header Oct 22, 2020 · Hybrids That Are Blight Resistant. Thankfully, Cornell University has bred newer varieties of tomatoes that are resistant to the different stages of blight. Here’s a list of the most blight resistant tomato varieties to plant in your garden: Iron Lady. Plum Perfect. The indeterminate tomatoes come with a small 0.5oz size. The tomatoes are suitable for salads. Cherry Punch. The 1” indeterminate tomatoes are known for their high nutritional value. The small tomatoes are high in Vitamin C. Chiquita. With a fruit size of 0.5oz, the determinate cherry tomatoes can be used in salads. The fruits have a deep ... Abstract. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The best known method of control of TSWV is through the use of resistant cultivars. Unfortunately, only a few peanut genotypes with moderate levels of resistance are known. The objectives of this study were to identify additional sources of resistance to TSWV and to ...Prune your tomato plant by snipping any suckers that may pop up and limit it to one single stem (the main stem). Also, only leave 2 to 3 flowers per cluster and snip the rest. Doing this allows the plant to focus all of its energy on 2 to 3 fruits instead of five or six. As a result, the tomatoes can grow larger.Sep 11, 2017 · Let tomatoes cool. Once cool, carefully peel off skins. Core the tomatoes and place in a food processor or blender. Puree until smooth, or pulse until desired consistency is reached if you want a chunkier sauce. Set aside. In a large pot, heat extra-virgin olive oil over medium-high heat. Add onions and garlic. Core gardening is a method used to retain water for your plants, making them last longer without watering, especially in arid areas, or if you are away from home often. Here we explain how to create a core garden, which is a super-easy process with many benefits.Feb 29, 2016 · Wild Peach vs. Modern Peach. We think of peaches as big, fuzzy stone fruits that are positively dripping with juice, but it wasn't always that way. Peaches used to be small, cherry-like fruits ... Tomato based stews are so common in West Africa! In fact, they are the kind of stew I knew while growing up. West African tomato stews are either made with chicken, beef or fish. Growing up in Cameroon, Fish Stew was the cheaper version of stew.How to Make Diced Tomatoes. It's raining tomatoes still.A ton of them! It's time to make my favorite Diced Tomatoes Recipe! Right now we have a explosion of cherry (hello cherry tomato sauce, slow cooker tomato sauce and spicy tomato sauce!), roma (hello roma tomato sauce, homemade tomato paste and fresh tomato salsa!) and beef tomatoes (hello tomato pie) of all sizes currently occupying ...find your favorite with our best-sellers pack shop now. upgrade our crackers. order core-healthy oat snacks today shop now. PEANUT BUTTER CHOCOLATE, 8 Bars. $24.00. ( / ) Add to Cart. BLUEBERRY BANANA ALMOND, 8 Bars. $24.00. The indeterminate tomatoes come with a small 0.5oz size. The tomatoes are suitable for salads. Cherry Punch. The 1” indeterminate tomatoes are known for their high nutritional value. The small tomatoes are high in Vitamin C. Chiquita. With a fruit size of 0.5oz, the determinate cherry tomatoes can be used in salads. The fruits have a deep ... How to dice tomatoes (without seeds and core) 1. Slice the fruit into wedges as directed above, then run your knife between the pulp and flesh of each wedge to trim away the core. 2. Halve each remaining piece of flesh lengthwise. hands using a knife to dice tomatoes on a wood cutting board. Credit: Joy Howard.Dishwasher safe and easy to clean. Simple and easy to use, just insert, twist, and pull out the core and seeds. Specification: Great for making Stuffed Peppers Chili Rellenos, Prepping for grilling and roasting. Simply Press the Tool into the top of the pepper or tomato, twist and pull out to remove the stem and seeds inside. Turn tomatoes over to the bottom and, using a paring knife, cut a shallow X in the bottom. Core tomatoes, if you like. Carefully lower tomatoes into the boiling water, in batches. Remove after about 30 seconds, once skins start to crack. Immediately put tomatoes into the bowl of ice water. Once tomatoes are cool enough to handle, peel skins ...Prune your tomato plant by snipping any suckers that may pop up and limit it to one single stem (the main stem). Also, only leave 2 to 3 flowers per cluster and snip the rest. Doing this allows the plant to focus all of its energy on 2 to 3 fruits instead of five or six. As a result, the tomatoes can grow larger.How to Peel Tomatoes. 1. Remove any stickers and wash the tomato thoroughly. 2. Remove the stem and cut a shallow X on the bottom of the tomato. This will make peeling much easier. Optional: Some cooks also cut out the stem end with a sharp paring knife. 3. Fill a large bowl with ice water and set it aside.Insert the tip of the knife around the edges of the core and cut at an angle. Once you go all the way around, the core should come right out. Slice the tomato into ¼-inch slices. You can do this horizontally and veritcally. With the tip of the knife, push away the seeds and accompanying gel, leaving just the meat of the tomato behind.A midwesterner to the core, reliable, versatile and classic tomato red color, a proud graduate of University of Wisconsin, class of 1945. close Moonglow. Winner of Seedsavers 2007 Tomato Tasting. Bright Orange and sweet, looks and tastes like a jolly grandparent of our favorite non-heirloom tomato: the sweet sungold.ari shaffietravel appshousing in crawleythe devil made me do it documentaryrhino set camera positioncpa far examhow long do inquiries stay on your credit reportpass through inverter Insert the tip of the knife around the edges of the core and cut at an angle. Once you go all the way around, the core should come right out. Slice the tomato into ¼-inch slices. You can do this horizontally and veritcally. With the tip of the knife, push away the seeds and accompanying gel, leaving just the meat of the tomato behind.This item: Norpro Tomato Core It, 4.75 Inch, Silver $5.09 Triangle Germany Tomato Corer and Fruit Huller, Professional-grade Stainless Steel Tool Easily Removes Stems from or Hollows Out Tomatoes and Fruit $14.96 Chef'n Hullster Tomato Huller $7.50 What's in the box Norpro Tomato Core It Compare with similar items Product DescriptionThe fruit starts to turn the ripe color but may only get yellow at the top near the core. Yellow shoulder in tomatoes is a common problem. Before your tomato tops turn yellow, learn about controlling yellow shoulders for beautiful, evenly ripe tomatoes. Yellow Shoulder Disorder. Yellow or green tomato shoulders are the result of high heat.They grow to be large and round and are kind of meaty for a tomato. They have a unique pink tone to them as well. Yet, they are said to be some of the best-tasting tomatoes in popular opinion. Because of their large size, they are another tomato that goes well on any sandwich from a BLT to a fresh cheeseburger. 4. Chocolate StripesAmazon.com: strawberry core remover tip www.amazon.com. 1-48 of 162 results for "strawberry core remover" Price and other details may vary based on size and color.Fruit Strawberry Slicer Core Corers Remover Tool, Huller Cutter Stem Pineapple Eyes Stalk Leaves Gadget Set 2PCS. $6.53 $ 6.OR wash tomatoes. Dip wholes tomatoes in boiling water for 30 seconds to loosen skins. Core and peel. Freeze whole or in pieces. Pack into containers, leaving 1-inch headspace. Seal and freeze. Tomatoes will not be solid when thawed and are best used in cooking. Frozen sliced tomatoes should be eaten in a near-frozen state for fresh taste.Tomatoes are one of the most popular garden plants. They are tasty, versatile, and easy to grow. However, unless you live in a protected greenhouse, your outdoor tomatoes probably fall victim to pests before they get the chance to fully ripen.Jul 22, 2019 · To make the tea follow these steps: Mix one pound of homemade fertilizer (made above) to a gallon and a half of water. Stir to mix well a couple of times a day. Place your bucket with the lid on in an area where it is protected from extreme cold or heat. Allow your compost tea to steep for five days. In this study, we attempted to identify plant growth-promoting endophytes within the bacterial groups identified as part of the core tomato root microbiome. In total, 49 bacterial endophytic strains, identified as members of the phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were picked and isolated from tomato roots on selected media.Jul 22, 2019 · To make the tea follow these steps: Mix one pound of homemade fertilizer (made above) to a gallon and a half of water. Stir to mix well a couple of times a day. Place your bucket with the lid on in an area where it is protected from extreme cold or heat. Allow your compost tea to steep for five days. 5. Slip off skins; trim away any green areas; cut out core. Leave tomatoes whole or cut into halves or quarters. For tomatoes packed in water, place tomatoes in a large saucepot, adding just enough water to cover. Boil gently 5 minutes. Remove canning jar from hot water with a jar lifter; set jar on towel.Wash whole tomatoes, remove the stems and cut out the core. 2. Leave the tomatoes whole or quarter them and pack them into freezer bags, leaving about an inch headspace. To Can Tomatoes. Tomatoes are an intermediate acid food. To make them acid enough for canning in a water bath canner or pressure canner, lemon juice (2 tablespoons/quart ...EIO Push Chair User Manual Model# Series 63000000 UMEIO06-16LIT Core Professional Tomato Knife $99.95 * * Sales tax and shipping costs will be charged separately. Available Type: Kitchen Knife Overall Length: 9.06 in ... day sense for the requirements and needs of cooking and kitchen enthusiasts in our product development of the Boker Core series, combined with our almost 150 years of experience as a ...electronically controlled fuel injection systemkaido racer romhp insight management agents for windows server 2016 downloadfull tilt booteratlantic medical imaging appointmentmovies about time Core-It Tomato Corer Tomato Corer, with Strawberry Stem Remover. $10.49 Each. Price: 10.49 Each. Add to Cart. View Similar. Heinz ... Fire-Roasted Tomatoes, Vermont Cheddar Cheese, 16 Oz Each. $5.99 Each. Price: 5.99 Each. Add to Cart. View Similar. Tomato Magic California TomatoesDescription. Easily core tomatoes and more with this Norpro Core It. This handy tool has stainless steel teeth and a tomato red plastic body. To use with tomatoes, insert the teeth of corer at the stem and twist out. For strawberries, hook the stem off with teeth of the corer. This Core It is ideal for a variety of fruits and vegetables.12 years ago cores are often more pronounced in flattened and "boat shaped" fruits where the stem attachment is depressed into the fruit. like these They tend to be less pronounced in fruit with smooth rounded shoulders where the stem attachment is not as depressed into the fruit. { {gwi:1396608}}"The other thing is if you drown it and then forget about it for two weeks, the core of the tomato grows faster than the shell of the tomato so what happens is that the core breaks the shell and ...White core. Under stressful conditions, tomato fruit often develop a tough, white core in their center. The white tissue might be expressed only in the area of the fruit just beneath the calyx or, in extreme cases, through the entire depth of the fruit. The internal walls of the fruit may also appear pale in color and "corky".He said he grew the original Abe Lincoln tomato--not the ones that were later sold but from the 1923 seed catalog." Released by H.W. Buckbees in 1923, this meaty variety has incredible thick flesh with a tiny seed core and great old-fashioned tomato flavor. Vines are indeterminate with medium to very large red fruit.Amazon.com: strawberry core remover tip www.amazon.com. 1-48 of 162 results for "strawberry core remover" Price and other details may vary based on size and color.Fruit Strawberry Slicer Core Corers Remover Tool, Huller Cutter Stem Pineapple Eyes Stalk Leaves Gadget Set 2PCS. $6.53 $ 6.Heat Butter Flavored Olive Oil by Star in a large shallow pan. Mix the oregano, salt and pepper into the bread crumbs or panko and set on a plate. Download this Slice Of Tasty Chi Better Bush is a hybrid tomato cultivar with relatively short vines. As a determinate variety, the majority of its 4-inch red fruits will ripen in a very short time, making it a good choice if you ...The indeterminate tomatoes come with a small 0.5oz size. The tomatoes are suitable for salads. Cherry Punch. The 1” indeterminate tomatoes are known for their high nutritional value. The small tomatoes are high in Vitamin C. Chiquita. With a fruit size of 0.5oz, the determinate cherry tomatoes can be used in salads. The fruits have a deep ... Place the tomatoes on a cutting board, stem-side down. Cut a shallow X in the bottom of each tomato. If you plan to core the tomatoes, you may do so now or do it later when you remove the skin and or seeds. If you want to core the tomatoes now, make a deep cut next to the stem end. Holding the knife at an angle, cut around the stem.Pink Girl Hybrid Tomato. #00556. Questions? Call 1-800-345-5977. (VFASt) 76 Days. Heavy producer of pink fruits, averaging 6 to 8 oz. Fruits are extremely crack-resistant and low in acid. Rich flavor and superior quality in a disease resistant variety. A season-long high yielder.personal vtol aircraftappend kustointellij idea ignore filesdhimbje muskujshruger 10 22 mach 2intertherm parts near me F4_1